Intraoperative cholangiography: Learning curve in a General Surgery residency

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Santiago Darrigran
Lucas A. Ituriza
Nicolás A. Lanza
Luciano E. Mercuri
Federico Aispuro
Agustín Chichizola
Jorge López Camelo
Nicolás Guerrini
Carlos M. Canullán


Background: The use of dynamic intra-operative cholangiography (dIOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap Chole) remains a topic under discussion.
Objectives: This study aims to describe and evaluate the learning curve and findings in the dIOC during
laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by Residents of General Surgery, including it as a tool for a safe cholecystectomy, as well as training for the development of skills and abilities.
Material and methods: Patients with indication of scheduled or emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. In the surgeries, traction was performed according to Hunter, critical safety vision and systematic dIOC, by a senior Resident and the dIOC by a less trained resident, tutored by a staff surgeon. Learning curve, operative times, dIOC time relationship with Lap Chole duration time (IOC/LC), repeated cystic dissection, cystic lithiasis and choledocholithiasis were evaluated.
Results: 456 patients were operated for one year (2017-2018). It was observed that regardless of who performs the dIOC, they were able to improve their learning curve, objectifying shorter times for Lap Chole, dIOC and the IOC/LC relationship. The learning coefficients were better in complex surgeries in relation to the semester. 5.26 % had choledocholithiasis (n = 24), of these, 66.7% had cystic
lithiasis (n = 16) and 25% associated cholecystitis (n = 6). All were resolved trancystically. There were no conversions and dIOC was performed in 100% of cases.
Conclusion: The dIOC is an ideal procedure to be practiced systematically during residency. 


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Darrigran, S., Ituriza, L. A., Lanza, N. A., Mercuri, L. E., Aispuro, F., Chichizola, A., López Camelo, J., Guerrini, N., & Canullán, C. M. (2021). Intraoperative cholangiography: Learning curve in a General Surgery residency. Revista Argentina De Cirugía, 112(4), 498–507. (Original work published March 16, 2021)
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